What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?


1. Question : (TCO 1) What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?





Question 2. Question : (TCO 1) Which statement is FALSE concerning the field of nutrition?

Nutrition is the study of how food nourishes the body.

Nutrition encompasses how we consume, digest, metabolize, and store food.

Nutrition is an ancient science that dates back to the 14th century.

Nutrition involves studying the factors that influence eating patterns.

Question 3. Question : (TCO 1) Which of the following is an example of disease that is directly caused by a nutritional deficiency?




Heart disease

Question 4. Question : (TCO 1) For dinner, Bill consumes 255 grams of carbohydrate, 70 grams of protein, and 50 grams of fat. In addition, Bill decides that he wants a glass of wine with his meal. If he drinks one glass of wine containing 8 grams of alcohol, how many total kilocalories does he consume in this meal?

56 kilocalories

540 kilocalories

1,675 kilocalories

1,806 kilocalories

Question 5. Question : (TCO 1) Which of the following is true regarding the science of nutrition?

As compared to many other scientific disciplines, nutrition is a young science.

Discoveries by the first nutritional scientists established the connection between deficiencies and illness.

In developed countries, current research in nutrition focuses on the relationship between diet and chronic diseases.

All of these are true.

Question 6. Question : (TCO 1) Which of the following are examples of carbohydrate-rich foods?

Butter and corn oil

Beef and pork

Wheat and lentils

Bacon and eggs

Question 7. Question : (TCO 2) What percentage of deaths in the United States can be attributed to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol misuse, physical inactivity, and unbalanced diet?





Question 8. Question : (TCO 2) Aim for fitness, build a healthy base, and choose sensibly are general directives of:

The Food Guide Pyramid.

The Nutrition Facts Panel.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

The Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians.

Question 9. Question : (TCO 2) The Nutrition Facts Panel on a box of crackers indicates that one serving provides 140 calories, with 55 calories coming from fat. Calculate the percentage of calories from fat in this product.




Need more information to calculate.

Question 10. Question : (TCO 2) The standard used to estimate the daily nutrient needs of half of all healthy individuals is:





Question 11. Question : (TCO 2) Which of the following is required on all food labels?

the net contents of the package

ingredient list

the name and address of the vendor

all of these

Question 12. Question : (TCO 2) The government agency that regulates the food labels on fresh meat and poultry in the United States is the:





Question 13. Question : (TCO 3) What is the cephalic phase?

earliest phase of digestion when the brain prepares the body in anticipation of food

phase when the semidigested food leaves the stomach and slowly enters the small intestine

phase when the majority of absorption occurs, primarily occurring in the small intestine

final phase of digestion when the large intestine and rectum prepare the undigested components of food for elimination

Question 14. Question : (TCO 3) Digestion and absorption occur at the ________ level.





Question 15. Question : (TCO 3) Which best explains why carbohydrate digestion ceases when food reaches the stomach?

Carbohydrate is completely digested in the mouth.

Salivary enzymes cannot function in the acid environment of the stomach.

Carbohydrate is completely absorbed in the esophagus.

Intestinal bacteria are needed for carbohydrate digestion.

Question 16. Question : (TCO 3) In which organ does the majority of water absorption occur?



small intestine

large intestine

Question 17. Question : (TCO 3) Barbara has just been diagnosed with celiac disease. Which of the following foods would be most dangerous for her to consume?


rice cakes


whole-wheat bread

1. Question : (TCO 4) Up to ________ of the world’s population suffers from lactose intolerance.





Question 2. Question : (TCO 4) Without sufficient ________, the colon gets too little exercise and becomes weak.





Question 3. Question : (TCO 4) In type 1 diabetes, the ________ may be destroyed by an autoimmune disease.

hepatocytes of the liver

beta cells of the pancreas

neurotransmitters of the brain

glomerulus cells of the kidney

Question 4. Question : (TCO 4) Individuals with the disease PKU (phenylketonuria) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?

People with PKU are highly prone to development of diabetes.

People with PKU are allergic to the sweetener.

People with PKU experience severe headaches when they consume aspartame.

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

Question 5. Question : (TCO 4) Diabetes is a condition in which the body doesn’t process ________ properly.





Question 6. Question : (TCO 4) In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.





Question 7. Question : (TCO 4) In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the:

muscles and liver.

kidney and muscles.

liver and kidney.

liver and pancreas.

Question 8. Question : (TCO 4) Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth?



pancreatic amylase

salivary amylase

Question 9. Question : (TCO 1-6) In the United States, the most common food-borne illnesses result from which of the following bacteria?

Giardia lamblia


Campylobacter jejuni

Clostridium botulinum

Question 10. Question : (TCO 1-6) Why do fungi rarely cause food infection?

Few species of fungi cause serious illness.

Fungal growth makes food look unappealing.

Fungal growth makes food taste unappealing.

All of these are reasons fungi rarely cause food infection.

Question 11. Question : (TCO 1-6) Which of the following additives gives ham, hot dogs, and bologna their pink color?




propionic acid

Question 12. Question : (TCO 1-6) The food-borne illness caused by Campylobacter jejuni is associated with consuming:

grains that have been stored in a moist environment.

water that has been contaminated with fecal material.


contaminated beef or pork.

Question 13. Question : (TCO 1-6) The proper steps developed for canning foods ensures that all endospores of ________ are eliminated when followed carefully.


Clostridium botulinum

Giardia intestinalis

Campylobacter jejuni

Question 14. Question : (TCO 1-6) A cyclic food allergy is one that:

occurs every time the offending food is eaten.

develops on a fixed time frame, such as once a month.

develops slowly over time.

occurs during times of physiological stress, such as during illness or surgery.

Question 15. Question : (TCO 1-6) The primary symptom of Giardia infection is:





Question 16. Question : (TCO 1-6) Which of the following is TRUE concerning the safe storage of leftovers?

Leftovers should be refrigerated within two hours of serving.

Leftovers should be stored at a depth of no greater than two inches.

Leftovers should only be refrigerated for up to four days.

All of these are true.

Question 17. Question : (TCO 1-6) The primary method used to preserve seafood is:

adding salt.



adding sugar.

1. Question : (TCO 5) Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?


Beta cells of the pancreas


Adipose tissue

Question 2. Question : (TCO 5) Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?


Gastrointestinal distress

Elevated blood cholesterol levels


Question 3. Question : (TCO 5) Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

Corn oil

Coconut oil

Beef fat


Question 4. Question : (TCO 5) All of the following organs assist in the digestion of lipids EXCEPT the:


large intestine.



Question 5. Question : (TCO 5) Diets high in trans-fatty acids are associated with:

decreased cancer risk.

increased blood cholesterol levels.


decreased blood glucose levels.

Question 6. Question : (TCO 5) Which of the following foods is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids?


Sirloin steak



Question 7. Question : (TCO 5) Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?

Hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids.

Hydrogenation is the process in which hydrogen atoms are added to double bonds.

Hydrogenation creates a heart-healthy product.

Hydrogenation makes a product more solid at room temperature.

Question 8. Question : (TCO 5) Triglycerides are classified by:

the length of the fatty acids.

the saturation of the fatty acids.

the shape of the fatty acids.

all of these.

Question 9. Question : (TCO 6) What element makes protein different from carbohydrates and fat?





Question 10. Question : (TCO 6) What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?

The body’s need for a protein

The DNA inside the nucleus of the cell

The number of essential amino acids available

The combination of proteins consumed in the diet

Question 11. Question : (TCO 6) Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered essential?





Question 12. Question : (TCO 6) The specific function of a protein is determined by:

its sequence of amino acids.

its length.

its three-dimensional shape.

its electric charge.

Question 13. Question : (TCO 6) All of the following are parts of an amino acid molecule EXCEPT:

a central carbon.

an amine group.

an acid group.

a fatty acid group.

Question 14. Question : (TCO 6) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The healthy body’s primary energy source is carbohydrates and fat.

The body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves.

To utilize protein for energy, the amine group is removed.

Eating sufficient carbohydrates and fat will spare body protein.

Question 15. Question : (TCO 6) The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, milk, and eggs, but excludes all other types of animal protein, is called a:



lacto-ovo vegetarian.


Question 16. Question : (TCO 6) Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans?


Vitamin B12

Vitamin C





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