VS.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to a) identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history; b) determine cause-and-effect relationships; c) compare and contrast historical events; d) draw conclusions and make generalizations; e) make connections between past and present; f) sequence events in Virginia history; g) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; h) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing; i) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
VS.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the physical geography and native peoples, past and present, of Virginia by a) locating Virginia and its bordering states on maps of the United States; b) locating and describing Virginia’s Coastal Plain (Tidewater), Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau; c) locating and identifying water features important to the early history of Virginia (Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay, James River, York River, Potomac River, Rappahannock River, and Lake Drummond and the Dismal Swamp); d) locating three American Indian language groups (the Algonquian, the Siouan, and the Iroquoian) on a map of Virginia; e) describing how American Indians related to the climate and their environment to secure food, clothing, and shelter; f) describing how archaeologists have recovered new material evidence at sites including Werowocomoco and Jamestown; g) identifying and locating the current state-recognized tribes.
VS.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by a) explaining the reasons for English colonization; b) describing how geography influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown; c) identifying the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London in establishing the Jamestown settlement; d) identifying the importance of the General Assembly (1619) as the first representative legislative body in English America; e) identifying the importance of the arrival of Africans and English women to the Jamestown settlement; f) describing the hardships faced by settlers at Jamestown and the changes that took place to ensure survival; g) describing the interactions between the English settlers and the native peoples, including the contributions of Powhatan to the survival of the settlers.
VS.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by a) explaining the importance of agriculture and its influence on the institution of slavery; b) describing how the culture of colonial Virginia reflected the origins of European (English, Scots-Irish, German) immigrants, Africans, and American Indians; c) explaining the reasons for the relocation of Virginia’s capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg to Richmond; d) describing how money, barter, and credit were used; e) describing everyday life in colonial Virginia.
VS.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by a) identifying the reasons why the colonies went to war with Great Britain, as expressed in the Declaration of Independence; b) identifying the various roles played by whites, enslaved African Americans, free African Americans, and American Indians in the Revolutionary War era, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and James Lafayette; c) identifying the importance of the Battle of Great Bridge, the ride of Jack Jouett, and the American victory at Yorktown.
VS.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by a) explaining why George Washington is called the “Father of our Country” and James Madison is called the “Father of the Constitution”; b) identifying the ideas of George Mason and Thomas Jefferson as expressed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom; c) explaining the influence of geography on the migration of Virginians into western territories.
VS.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by a) identifying the events and differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia; b) describing Virginia’s role in the war, including identifying major battles that took place in Virginia; c) describing the roles played by whites, enslaved African Americans, free African Americans, and American Indians.
VS.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by a) identifying the effects of Reconstruction on life in Virginia; b) identifying the effects of segregation and “Jim Crow” on life in Virginia for whites, African Americans, and American Indians; c) describing the importance of railroads, new industries, and the growth of cities to Virginia’s economic development.
VS.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth- and twenty-first-century Virginia by a) describing the economic and social transition from a rural, agricultural society to a more urban, industrialized society, including the reasons people came to Virginia from other states and countries; b) identifying the impact of Virginians, such as Woodrow Wilson and George C. Marshall, on international events; c) identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked to desegregation and Massive Resistance and their relationship to national history; d) identifying the political, social, and/or economic contributions made by Maggie L. Walker; Harry F. Byrd, Sr.; Oliver W. Hill; Arthur R. Ashe, Jr.; A. Linwood Holton, Jr.; and L. Douglas Wilder.
VS.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by a) identifying the three branches of Virginia government and the function of each; b) describing the major products and industries of Virginia’s five geographic regions; c) explaining how advances in transportation, communications, and technology have contributed to Virginia’s prosperity and role in the global economy.
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