The Skeletal System


Axial skeleton versus

Hyoid bone

Appendicular skeleton

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle




1. Long

· Diaphysis

· Compaact bone

· Medullary cavity

· Endosteum

· Yellow bone marrow

· Epiphysis

· Spongy bone

· Red bone marrow

i. hematopoiesis

· Articular cartilage

· periosteum

2. Short

3. Flat

4. Irregular

5. Sesamoid


Epiphyseal disk













A. Major Cranial bones:

1. Frontal 

2. Parietal (2)

3. Occipital

a. Foramen magnum

4. Temporal (2)

a. External auditory meatus

b. Mastoid process

5. Ear Ossicles

a. Malleus

b. Incus

c. Stapes

B. Major Facial bones:

1. Mandible

2. Maxillae (2)

3. Zygomatic (2)

4. Nasal (2)

5. Palatine

Spinal Column:

1. Cervical

2. Thoracic

3. Lumbar

4. Sacral

5. Coccygeal

Thoracic Cage


True ribs

Costal cartilage

False ribs

Floating ribs

Pectoral girdle

1. Clavicles

2. Scapulae

Upper extremity bones:

· Humerus

· Radius

· Ulna

· Carpal bones

· Metacarpal bones

· Phalanges

Pelvic girdle:

1. Coxal bone (2)

a. Ilium

b. Ischium

c. pubis

2. sacrum

Lower extremity bones:

· Femur

· Acetabulum

· Patella

· Tibia

· Fibula

· Tarsal bones

· Calcaneus

· Metatarsal bones

· Phalanges


1. Fibrous

a. suture

2. Cartilaginous

a. Pubis symphysis

b. Intervertebral disc

3. Synovial

a. Knee

· Joint capsule

· Ligament

· Synovial fluid

· Joint cavity

· Synovial membrane



Rheumatoid arthritis


Ewing sarcoma


· Complete

· Incomplete

· Simple

· Compound

· Greenstick

· Comminuted

· Impacted

· Spiral

· Reduction

o Closed 

o Open





Osteogenesis imperfect


Bone density test versus bone scan


Paget’s disease

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