Replies to discussion board question 11.8 and 12.7 for

Must be at least 450-600 words, in current APA format, must use at least 2 scholarly articles as references, and one biblical scripture for each reply.



11.8 As part of its bankruptcy restructuring, General Motors (GM) launched an ad campaign that revealed glimmers of a streamlined GM: fewer brands (Cadillac, Buick, Chevrolet, GMC, and fewer models within each brand.


1. What research would you have done to determine which vehicle models GM should retain or drop?


Well at this point the most important goal is to obtain the most profit.  I would have analyzed all the car brands to determine which car is the most profitable for the company.  For instance, it should not just be analyzed just which car sells the most because there are so many other factors to consider.  For instance, which car provides the most gross profit?  The car that GM sells the most might not necessarily be the one GM wants to sell based on the each individual car profit.  For instance, GM might sell a car that each individual profit is much higher, but only sell an average amount of inventory.  For example, you need to decide which car model sold annually and the average amount of inventory GM sells per year.   Then the next step is to research which car provides the lowest profit and may not be necessarily the most popular model. 


GM also needs to determine which brands may not be the most popular and also which has marketability for the future.  For instance, maybe GM needs to stop making as many trucks because the auto trend is for more green electric cars.  There is a definitely trend because people want to spend less on gasoline so many people are willing to buy electric cars.  So, another important measurement would be to forecast which cars consumers will find popular in the future. 


The company may need to downsize and just stop on building cars that are not as profitable.  It would be important to analyze the financial statements for the cost analysis on all models of the car.  For instance, a certain type of car may require a more expensive metal to construct the car.  The certain metal cost is expected to rise in the next five years so it is important to decide can they replace it with a cheaper material or would it be cheaper to stop making the car.




2. What would you have measured and with what type of measurement scale?


There are quite a few different ways that I would analyze this situation.  I would study the GM’s financials and also run a cost analysis on the cars.  I would then compare all of my inventory sold with a cost analysis of each car.  Then I would determine if it would be most profitable to close a certain car models factory versus the others brands.  For instance, a good way of analyzing the situation this would be to use an ordinal scale.  I would compare factors such as amount of inventory sold and profit margin.  I would run many ratios calculations on my inventory and accounts receivables.  For instance, is GM paying for a lot of inventory to just sit in the warehouse when a more cost efficient supply management could be constructed?  I would also start analyzing all the car models profit margins.  How could GM improve certain popular models?  For instance, it might be more cost efficient to change vendors for the same type of metal at a lower price.  It would be helpful to use ratio scales in this type of analysis as well.


A great Biblical integration passage would be use one’s resources and time wisely.  In Colossian 4:5, “Be wise in the way you act toward outsiders; make the most of every opportunity.”  I would encourage GM to follow this type of strategy and to ask the wisdom of other leaders how to best correct or improve the situation they are in.  Also God encourages us to learn and be wise in all our choices.  I would encourage the GM managers to study how other car companies have helped overcome this issue.



12.7 Businesses frequently use surveys to measure quality.  In an effort to evaluate the perception of customers and identify product quality, surveys are used as a mechanism to gather information.   Data analyses using insignificant, interval and ratio data are generally straightforward and transparent.


In the scenario, a Likert scale is used to collect various survey ratings using a ranking quality from high to low or best using five levels of classification in the consideration of strongly agree to strongly disagree.  Likert scales are considered to be one of the most popular methods of measuring attitudes in summated ratings.  The individual responses strongly agree through strongly disagree are assigned numbers, usually ranking from 1-5. In this manner, the responses to the various items are quantified and may be summed across statements to give a total score for the individual on the scale.


If Strongly Agree (SA) represents the most positive attitude, how would you value the items below?  Record your answers to the items.


The program is not very challenging.                                                 SA       A         N         D         SD


The general level of teaching is good.                                                SA       A         N         D         SD


I really think I’m learning a lot from this program                         SA       A         N         D         SD


Students’ suggestions are given little attention                              SA       A         N         D         SD


The program does a good job of preparing one for a career         SA       A         N         D         SD  


The program is below my expectations                                         SA       A         N         D         SD


In what two different ways could such responses be used?  What would be the purpose of each?


A fundamental reason for analyzing ordinal data as interval data might be the argument Likert-type data has unique data analysis procedures. Numbers associated with the categories serve only as labels.  Numbers assigned to groups express a greater than relationship; however, how much greater is not implied. The numbers only indicate the order. Examples of ordinal scale measures include letter grades, rankings, and achievement (low, medium, high) (Maurer & Pierce, 1998). A Likert scale consists of a series of four or more Likert-type items that are combined into a single composite score or variable during the data analysis process. One method the responses can be used is combined, the items are used to provide a quantitative measure of a category or criteria in the research study.  According to Linacre 2002 typically the researcher is only interested in the composite score that represents the character or personality trait.


The difficulty of measuring attitudes, character, and personality traits lies in the procedure for transferring these qualities into a quantitative measure for data analysis purposes.  Attitude reflects a person’s character and will.  Christians are encouraged to be Christ like and to keep him on the forefront and to seek God in all things and reflect a positive attitude “So that you may not be sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises (Hebrews 6:12).”   


Rating scales have several uses, design features, and requirements.  Likert scales can be used as a means of course evaluation to provide feedback on the content and facilitation of coursework.  Likert-type items as single questions that use some aspect of the original Likert response alternatives, while multiple questions may be used in a research instrument. Likert scale data are analyzed at the interval measurement scale. 


According to Allen and Seaman 2007 it would take twelve separate responses to discover a person’s attitude toward a textbook and an instructor with the semantic differential. With Likert scaling, two responses would yield the same data. This efficiency can best be appreciated by the overloaded instructor. Students can evaluate numerous facets of instruction, course content, and the instructor in a relatively short period of time.




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