model 03 – hiv drug resistance.


Biology 100 – Winter 2021 NAME: _____________________________

Highline College

Evidence-Based Model 03 (Final Exam) – How does HIV drug resistance happen? 

Scientists use explanatory models in order to be able to connect a series of ideas to explain how a natural phenomenon might work. Their explanation includes the available evidence and existing scientific knowledge up to that time. A model can then be tested and revised, if necessary, as new information is gained. 

In this model you will concentrate on telling a story of how HIV drug resistance happens. A story flows from a beginning, a middle, and an end. This story will be mostly a picture book story supported by words when necessary to help explain your point. The objective of this exercise is to help you to learn how populations of organisms change in response to their environment by natural selection. 

This type of story is called an explanatory model, where you explain how you think a natural phenomenon works through an evidence-based explanation (or story). Your evidence, in this instance, is the information from your observations, measurements, and reliable resources from class, your labs, and your text. 

OK, so let’s get started! Here is a checklist of the following terms and concepts that you should include in your story of how antibiotics might work.

Checklist for Explanatory Model of Natural selection of HIV drug resistance in a population of HIV viruses

First, there was an infection….

1)  Story starts with explanation of where HIV drug resistance is taking place.

à then make clear why the next part of the story comes next….

2) Draw a diagram and explain the life cycle of the HIV virus making sure to include the 3 HIV enzymes:

q reverse transcriptase

q integrase

q protease

q à then make clear why the next part of the story comes next….

3) Draw a diagram and explain how drugs work by:

q competitive inhibition

q noncompetitive inhibition 

q à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

4) Explain how reverse transcriptase causes the presence of pre-existing variations. Include a description of the different types of mutations:

q single base pair mutation

o silent

o missense

o nonsense

q insertions and deletions

o reading frame 

q à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

5) Explain how a random mutation could be resistant to an anti-HIV drug.

à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

6) Explain whether the drug causes the presence of that random mutation or reverse transcriptase causes it.  

à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

7) Explain how the drug selects for the random mutation producing a population of HIV-drug resistant viruses.

à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

8) How the HIV population changes over time:

Draw your Time 0/Time 1/Time 2 diagram of HIV drug resistance. Make a key to clearly label each type of virus. Time 0 is the population of HIV viruses BEFORE drug is taken, Time 1 is when the drug is working, and Time 2 is much later when the same drug is now no longer working – HIV is resistant to the drug.

à then make clear why the next part of the comes next….

9) Write a short paragraph that summarizes how resistance to anti-HIV drugs can occur in a population of HIV viruses through natural selection of a drug-resistant variation. This paragraph serves as a summary (backed up by evidence!) of your entire model. 

q Make sure you include all of the following five key concepts in your explanation.

o Population

o Pre-existing genetic variation (random)

o Environmental pressure/selection/ selected (not random)

o Heritable traits/ inheritance/ inherited

o Adaptation/ adapted

q Also make sure to include a detailed description of how other viruses (like SARS-CoV-2 or influenza) change over time from your SimBio lab.

Level of Evidence-Based Explanation: 

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

(5 points) (8 points) (10 points)

Level of Evidence-Based Explanation rubric:


Level 1

Level 2

Level 3


  • Student describes what happens in each part of the        model without linking them together to explain how or why a population of        HIV viruses evolves resistance to an anti-HIV drug.
  • Student describes,        summarizes, or restates each part of the checklist without making a        connection to full causal story.
  • No references to        established theories or evidence from lab or the text are used.
  • Student describes how or partial why a population of        HIV viruses evolves resistance to an anti-HIV drug.
  • Student links        together some parts of the model but not all.
  • Student addresses        theoretical components tangentially (non-specifically) or does not        reference evidence from lab and the text in their explanation.
  • Student explains a        population of HIV viruses evolves resistance to an anti-HIV drug
  • Student can trace a        full causal story for why a phenomenon occurred. This is well supported        by diagrams in the model.
  • Student uses powerful        science ideas like the theory of natural selection random genetic        mutations, as well as references to evidence from lab and the text, to        explain observable events.

10) References: Include APA7 references for 

· your textbook sources, the SimBio lab, and any other outside sources that you used 

· (don’t accidently plagiarize something!!)

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.