Question 1 of 25Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?A.To describe the health status of the populationB.To fund new public health programsC.To explain the etiology of diseaseD.To predict the occurrence of diseaseE.To control the distribution of diseaseQuestion 2 of 25The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):A.tracking down unusual disease outbreaks in the United States and foreign countriesB.collecting epidemiologic intelligence for local health departmentsC.disseminating epidemiologic information to members of the communityD.reporting suspicious epidemiologic agents to governmental agenciesQuestion 3 of 25Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?A.Description of specific signs and symptomsB.Description of seasonal trends in disease occurrenceC.Examination of disease occurrence among population groupsD.Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequencyQuestion 4 of 25Indicate the level of prevention represented by screening for breast cancerA.Primary Prevention ActiveB.Primary Prevention PassiveC.Secondary PreventionD.Tertiary PreventionQuestion 5 of 25Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflectA.seasonal variations in cases of influenzaB.the fact that influenza is a disappearing disorderC.long-term changes in mortality trendsD.both A and BQuestion 6 of 25Which of the following terms is expressed as a proportion (as distinguished from a ratio)?A.Male Births / Female Births B.Female Births / Male + Female Births C.Female Births / Male Births D.A and CQuestion 7 of 25The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined byA.the mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age groupB.a spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past yearC.the period prevalence for that disease during the past yearD.the incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of timeQuestion 8 of 25An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating accidents in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000, produced the following:Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month: 12,000Roller-skating accidents in Metroville: 600Total number of residents injured from roller-skating:1,800Total number of deaths from roller-skating:90Total number of deaths from all causes:900The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:A.90/600 × 100,000B.90/100,000 × 100,000C.90/1,800 × 100,000D.90/900 × 100,000Question 9 of 25The use of Geographic Information Systems may be thought of as following the heritage ofA.GrauntB.SnowC.KochD.SemmelweisQuestion 10 of 25As a characteristic of persons, age is perhaps the most important factor to consider when one is describing the occurrence of virtually any disease or illness, becauseA.older people are more health consciousB.older people seek medical treatment more oftenC.there is a greater variance in age-specific disease rates than in rates defined by almost any other personal attributeD.there are more numbers in ages than in geographical places or diseases in a populationQuestion 11 of 25What factors should be considered in measuring long-term changes in disease frequency over time?A.Changes in diagnostic criteriaB.Changes in the age distributionC.Changes in the fatal course of the conditionD.All of the aboveQuestion 12 of 25According to the natural history of disease model, the time before the precursors of disease and the host interact is called the period ofA.PrepathogenesisB.PathogenesisC.PrimogenesisD.B and CQuestion 13 of 25Which form of prevention takes place after the precursors of disease interact with the host?A.TertiaryB.SecondaryC.PrimaryD.Both A and BQuestion 14 of 25In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P declineA.74%B.1000%C.89%D.9%E.None of the aboveQuestion 15 of 25Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is theA.incidence rateB.prevalenceC.race-specific prevalenceD.race-specific incidence rateReset SelectionQuestion 16 of 25Incidence and prevalence data have different applications in public health. Prevalence data is used:A.For estimating the frequency of exposureB.To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a populationC.To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a diseaseD.A and BQuestion 17 of 25The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:A.the mortality rate is greater in women.B.the case fatality rate is greater in womenC.the duration of the disease is greater in womenD.women receive less adequate medical care for the diseaseQuestion 18 of 25High rates of mortality from hypertension found among African Americans may be due toA.Dietary factorsB.Exposure to stressC.ObesityD.All of the aboveQuestion 19 of 25According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show the following sex differences:A.Rates for males are higher than rates for females.B.Rates for males are equal to the rates for females.C.Rates for females are higher than rates for males.D.Females have higher rates of hearing impairment than males.E.B and DQuestion 20 of 25Descriptive epidemiology characterizes the amount and distribution of disease within a population to enable the researcher toA.make direct tests of etiologic hypothesesB.generate testable hypotheses regarding etiologyC.evaluate trends in health and disease within a populationD.All of the aboveE.B and C onlyQuestion 21 of 25Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:A.admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born personsB.diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United StatesC.some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseasesD.immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successfulQuestion 22 of 25Identify the incorrect option. Case clustering:A.is of indeterminate significance for rare diseases, because clusters may occur by chance aloneB.suggests common exposure of a group of people to an etiologic agentC.is called temporal clustering for geographic concentrations of casesD.has been shown for angiosarcoma and vaginal carcinomaE.None of these are correctQuestion 23 of 25Which of the following reasons might account for place variation in diseaseA.Concentration of racial or ethnic groups within an areaB.Genetic and environment interactionsC.Influence of climateD.Presence of environmental carcinogensE.All of the aboveQuestion 24 of 25Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factorA.DifferenceB.AgreementC.Concomitant variationD.ResiduesQuestion 25 of 25Using epidemiology for operational research involves:A.study of community health servicesB.study of risks to the individualC.study of disease syndromesD.All of the above 

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