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 Question 12 pts

The Roman emperor Constantine:

Group of answer choices

rejected all traditional Roman religious practices, and persecuted those that refused to convert to Christianity

required all Christian converts to follow Jewish laws and dietary restrictions

ordered the toleration of all religions, including Christianity, and was baptized as a Christian himself shortly before he died

raised taxes on the Christian Church in an effort to stop the spread of Christianity

Flag question: Question 2Question 22 ptsThe Arian interpretation of Christianity differed from Trinitarian Christianity because:Group of answer choicesArian Christians did not believe that Jesus was the son of God, but simply a gifted philosopher whose teachings were inspired by a divine forceArius of Alexandria argued that Jesus was inferior to God because he was born and died and that, because he was partly human, he served as an example to all humansArian Christians continued to follow Jewish law, observe Jewish dietary restrictions, and celebrate all Jewish holidaysArian Christians believed that it was acceptable for believers to worship the Roman gods as well as Jesus, and that all divine beings are essentially equal Flag question: Question 3Question 32 pts

Called by the emperor Constantine in 325 CE, the Council of Nicaea:

Group of answer choices

condemned the practice of Arian Christianity, and accepted the doctrine of the Trinity

banned the practice of Christianity in all Roman provinces

outlawed the practice of any religion other than Christianity, but accepted both Arian and Trinitarian Christianity as legitimate interpretations

required all Christian converts to follow Jewish laws and dietary restrictions

Flag question: Question 4Question 42 ptsHow was the Greek city of Byzantium transformed by the emperor Constantine in 330 CE?Group of answer choicesConstantine declared an end to the “New Roman” empire, established the Byzantine Empire in its place, and banned the practice of Christianity 

Byzantium was rededicated as Constantinople and became the imperial capital of the entire Roman Empire

Byzantium was given by treaty to the Persian Empire as a peace offeringConstantine designated Byzantium as a city where Roman citizens could worship the Roman gods freely, without fear of persecution Flag question: Question 5Question 52 pts

The Emperor Justinian’s program for revitalizing the Byzantine state included:

Group of answer choices

the revision and reorganization of existing Roman law into the Corpus Juris Civilus, or Justinian Code

a conscious attempt to revive the old Roman Empire by ordering military campaigns to reconquer Italy and North Africa from barbarian tribes

sponsoring large-scale building projects, like the construction of the great Church of Hagia Sophia

all of the other answers are true Flag question: Question 6Question 62 pts

Augustine of Hippo was:

Group of answer choices

the Christian monk who wrote the rule book which was used to organize most eastern European monastic communities

the military leader who united the northern and southern halves of the Roman Empire

the Catholic missionary responsible for introducing Christianity to Ireland

the North African scholar whose ideas became the foundation of Western Christian theology, and the author of City of God

Flag question: Question 7Question 72 ptsWhat does The Rule of St. Benedict say about monks owning personal property?Group of answer choicesThe Rule of St. Benedict allows monks to own some personal items that are meaningful to them, like books and pens, but discourages the ownership of expensive luxury goods The Rule of St. Benedict encouraged monks to accumulate personal wealth as a way to help fund the operating costs of the monasteryThe Rule of St. Benedict does not say anything specific about whether or not monks should own personal property, so some monks did and some didn’tThe Rule of St. Benedict refers to personal property as a “wicked vice” and prohibits monks from owning anything of their own Flag question: Question 8Question 82 ptsBenedictine monasteries became vitally important in medieval Europe as:Group of answer choicesmilitary bases used for the conquest of Islamic territories centers of religious life, but also as centers of political administration, economic development, and learningall of the other answers are truemanufacturing centers organized to supply the Byzantine army with weapons and tools Flag question: Question 9Question 92 pts

In Islamic tradition, the Qu’ran is:

Group of answer choices

the only acceptable source of information about the life of Muhammed

a book of inspirational sayings, but is not considered holy or divinely inspired

simply the Law Code of Hammurabi translated into Arabic

the direct word of God revealed to his Prophet, Muhammad

Flag question: Question 10Question 102 ptsAlthough the concept been interpreted by differently by different groups over time, many Muslims believe that an artist should not depict the human form, or the form of any creature. Why?Group of answer choicesBecause when an artist depicts the human form or the form of any creature, they are putting themselves in a role reserved for God – that of creatorBecause Islam is considered a universal religion, and drawing pictures of people or animals that live in a specific region tends to undermine Islam’s universal messageBecause human beings and animals are inherently weak and sinful, and depictions of them only remind the viewer of their sinsBecause living creatures are difficult to draw accurately, and Muslims should always strive for perfection  Flag question: Question 11Question 112 ptsAccording to the documentary The Hidden Art of Islam, what is the purpose behind the repetitions of geometric patterns found in Islamic art?Group of answer choicesTo teach mathematical principles to ordinary men and women who would not have access to other instructional materialsTo distract the viewer from the boredom of listening to religious texts being read aloud at mosques To bring the viewer to a contemplative state which allows them to think about the repetition of patterns within nature that God created, and to emphasize the importance of unity, logic, and orderTo glorify the political leaders who provided the money for the creation of art and architecture Flag question: Question 12Question 122 pts

Charlemagne:

Group of answer choicesall of the other answers are true

expanded the Carolingian Empire in western Europe so that only Britain, southern Italy, and parts of Spain lay outside his control

accepted the title of Holy Roman Emperor, and was crowned by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day in 800 CE

rose to power as the king of the Franks

Flag question: Question 13Question 132 ptsWhat changed because of the Carolingian Renaissance?Group of answer choicesLatin usage improved, and basic literacy was extended among some of the clergy and even among some of the Frankish nobilityall of the other answers are truea new form of writing known as Carolingian minuscule was developed, which used  both upper and lower case letters and took up less space on a handwritten pagenumerous books were copied for the library at the palace school at Aachen and for monastic communities, preserving many ancient texts Flag question: Question 14Question 142 ptsViking expansion was possible because:Group of answer choicesthe Vikings were the first to develop gunpowder, which was of limited use in battle but frightened local people into surrenderof Viking sailing technology, which produced strong, maneuverable, ships that could hold up to 60 men and were used not only to conduct raids, but also to connect a vast trading networkEurope had become largely uninhabited after the collapse of the Roman Empire, so Vikings were largely unopposed as they settled new areasthe Vikings adopted Roman military weapons and battle techniques that allowed them to dominate local Celtic tribes Flag question: Question 15Question 152 pts

Harald Bluetooth (Blåtand):

Group of answer choicesis the inspiration behind the naming of Bluetooth wireless technology, which was developed in Scandinaviaall of the other answers are truewas the Viking king who consolidated control of Denmark, and briefly ruled parts of modern Norwayis the credited with bringing Christianity to Denmark, although the nature of his conversion is unclear Flag question: Question 16Question 162 ptsWhat evidence suggests an overlap between the Viking and Islamic worlds?Group of answer choices

Researchers in Sweden have found Arabic characters woven into burial costumes from Viking boat graves

all of the other answers are true

A Viking ring with a Kufic inscription saying “for Allah” was found inside a 9th-century woman’s grave in Birka, Sweden.

Contact between the Viking and Muslim worlds has long been established by historic accounts and the discovery of Islamic coins across the northern hemisphere. DNA analysis from other Viking tomb excavations have shown some of the people buried in them originated from places like Persia, where Islam was dominant.

Flag question: Question 17Question 172 pts

William of Normandy’s conquest of England in 1066 is an example of the:

Group of answer choices

larger, more stable monarchies created in western Europe during the eleventh and twelfth centuries

inability of the British Popes to stop invasions

success of Islamic expansion into northern Europe

military power of the Byzantine emperors

Flag question: Question 18Question 182 ptsThe Bayeux Tapestry is significant because:Group of answer choicesit is a unique visual source of information about not just the Norman Conquest itself, but also about Norman dress, ship building, architecture, hair styles, and weaponrythe inscriptions embroidered into the tapestry are the first examples of English as a written languageit is the oldest surviving piece of woven cloth found anywhere in the world, and gives historians valuable information about ancient textile productionit illustrates how much influence the Byzantine empire had in western Europe Flag question: Question 19Question 192 pts

The Domesday Book:

Group of answer choices

is an invaluable source of historical information about 11th-century England

is a remarkably detailed survey of England conducted during William the Conqueror’s reign

was used for many centuries for both administrative and legal purposesall of the other answers are true Flag question: Question 20Question 202 pts

The impact of Norman rule on England included:

Group of answer choicesall of the other answers are truethe introduction of Norman French which, when mixed with Anglo-Saxon, has often resulted in two different words for the same thing in modern Englishthe redistribution of land and church offices to William of Normandy’s allies, often the second, third, or fourth sons of Norman nobles who would not inherit land in Normandy

the introduction of feudalism

Flag question: Question 21Question 212 pts

The Abbey of Cluny was important during the during the tenth and eleventh centuries because:

Group of answer choices

it was the last monastery to be established in Europe before the Islamic conquest of France

the pope lived there

it was the center of monastic reform, and the monks at Cluny strictly followed the Benedictine Rule

the monks at Cluny adopted elements of Islamic worship into their religious practices

Flag question: Question 22Question 222 pts

The Crusades:

Group of answer choicesbegan as a reaction to the Byzantine Empire’s invasion of Francehave often been portrayed as “clash of civilizations,” but the reality is more complex and recent scholarship has shown that there was widespread cooperation and exchange between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East

were organized to root out and eliminate Arian Christianity from Asia Minor

set off a “clash of civilizations” between Christians and Muslims that has lasted for many centuries Flag question: Question 23Question 232 ptsInto what three groups did medieval people tend to divide their society?Group of answer choicesThose who tax, those who pay, and those who have nothing.Those who legislate, those who enforce, and those who obey.Those who work, those who fight, and those who pray.Those who buy, those who sell, and those who produce. Flag question: Question 24Question 242 pts

The manor:

Group of answer choices

was the basic unit of agricultural organization in much of medieval Europe

all of the other answers are true

often included fields set aside for the grazing of animals, forest land for the gathering of firewood, and a parish church

can be defined as the estate of a lord, or landholder, and his dependent tenants

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