HCP -0530 Fall 2016 Final Exam (Score 100%)

QuestionQUESTION 1Which of the following findings raises doubt about Chomsky’s assumption that grammatical knowledge is innately determined? a. Adults and adolescents have more difficulty acquiring a second language than young childrenb. Complete mastery of some grammatical forms is not achieved until well into middle childhood.c. Chimpanzees learn to communicate through sign language and symbols.d. As children acquire language, the brain becomes increasingly specialized for language processing1 points QUESTION 2According to Erikson, children learn how to cooperate with others during the __________ stage.a. basic trust versus mistrustb. autonomy versus shame and doubtc. initiative versus guiltd. industry versus inferiority1 points QUESTION 3By the end of the first year, babies become increasingly skilled ata. establishing an internal working model. b. joint attentionc. social smiling.d. labeling their feelings.1 points QUESTION 4Societal order responsibilities that were once a function of the family are now assumed by a. schools.b. political and legal institutions. c. farms and storesd. churches.1 points QUESTION 51. Valerie is a college student studying to become a speech/language pathologist. In one of her classes, she is learning about the rules that govern the structure and sequencing of speech sounds. Valerie is studying a. phonology.b. grammarc. semantics.d. pragmatics.1 points QUESTION 6In contrast to Freud, Erikson:a. viewed children as taking a more active role in their own developmentb. recognized the lifespan nature of developmentc. minimized the role of culture in individual developmentd. focused on the impact of early experiences on later behavior.1 points QUESTION 7Mr. Garcia is often impatient and uses harsh discipline with his 4-year-old son, Liam. Liam, in turn, is aggressive and rebellious. This example illustrates a(n) __________ influence on development. a. directb. indirectc. third-partyd. temporal1 points QUESTION 8One important criticism of behaviorism is that ita. cannot be effectively applied to infants or to small childrenb. underestimates children’s contributions to their own developmentc. only works in the laboratory, not in children’s everyday lives.d. puts too much emphasis on children’s genetic traits.1 points QUESTION 9In Piaget’s concrete operational stage, childrena. consider all possible outcomes in a scientific problem.b. develop the capacity for abstract thinking.c. reason with symbols that do not refer to real-world objects.d. transform cognition into logical reasoning.1 points QUESTION 10Traditional behaviorists like Watson concluded that __________ is the supreme force in development.a. environmentb. heredityc. sexualityd. make-believe play1 points QUESTION 11All U.S. states require that each newborn be given a blood test for a. Tay-Sachs diseaseb. hemophilia.c. PKU.d. cystic fibrosis. 1 points QUESTION 12Blond hair can result only from havinga. two dominant allelesb. two recessive allelesc. a dominant dark hair allele and a recessive blond hair alleled. a dominant blond hair allele and a recessive dark hair allele.1 points QUESTION 13Noam Chomsky reasoned that a. in early childhood, rewards and punishments support language developmentb. young children are unable to assume much responsibility for their own language learning.c. the rules for sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to cognitively sophisticated young children.d. language, like any other behavior, is acquired through imitation and operant conditioning.1 points QUESTION 14The most frequent expression of fear is a. stranger anxiety.b. the fear of fallingc. the fear of unfamiliar objects and toys.d. separation anxiety.1 points QUESTION 15The information-processing approach views the mind as:a. a system for manipulating symbols.b. a socially constructed structurec. the result of stimulus-response associationsd. a mechanism of genetically programmed behaviors.1 points QUESTION 16During the oral psychosexual stage, if oral needs are not met appropriately, an individual may develop such habits as:a. extreme messiness and disorderb. hostility toward the same-sex parentc. sexual promiscuityd. fingernail biting and overeating.1 points QUESTION 17Charles Darwin is considered the forefather of scientific child study because:a. he constructed the first theory of human development.
b. he discovered that human prenatal growth differs markedly from that of other species.c. his theory prompted researchers to make careful observations of all aspects of children’s behaviord. he was the first to conduct experiments on children.1 points QUESTION 18According to Rousseau’s view of childhood, children:a. are naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.b. follow the same general plan as the evolution of the speciesc. are born as blank slates to be filled by adult instructiond. must learn to redirect their naturally evil tendencies into socially acceptable behaviors.1 points QUESTION 19Dr. Arbus is interested in learning how children come to understand their multifaceted world. In her research, she asks questions like: When do infants discover that they are separate beings, distinct from other people and objects? Dr. Arbus is studying a. social cognitionb. the inner self.c. self-concept.d. personality development.1 points QUESTION 20Brothers, Patrick and Michael, do not look very much alike. Patrick has green eyes and blond, curly hair like his mother. Michael has blue eyes and dark brown, straight hair like his father. These directly observable characteristics are a. phenotypesb. genotypes. c. chromosomes.d. DNA1 points QUESTION 21In a study of well-educated mothers, those who had recently given birth to their second child reporteda. less stress than after they had their first child.b. just as much stress as first-time mothers.c. more stress than after they had their first child.d. an increase of postpartum depression.1 points QUESTION 22Children typically say their first word at about _____ months and have mastered a large vocabulary and most grammatical constructions by _____ years. a. 6; 2 to 3b. 9; 3 to 4c. 12; 4 to 5d. 18; 5 to 61 points QUESTION 23Five-year-old Jamari observes his friend Liam fall while ice skating. Instead of crying, Liam starts to laugh, and Jamari imagines what Liam’s thoughts and feelings might be. Jamari is using __________ to understand Liam’s actions. a. self-regulationb. social comparisonc. belief–desire theory of mindd. perspective taking1 points QUESTION 24As Toshio approaches any situation, he rapidly appraises its personal significance, which prepares him for action. What does Toshio’s appraisal represent? a. emotionb. theoryc. attituded. temperament1 points QUESTION 25Some theorists believe that children who are high in verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability will:a. perform poorly on IQ tests in adolescenceb. engage in excessive make-believe play during early childhood.c. be highly competitive in athletics during adolescence.d. remain so at later ages.1 points QUESTION 26Which of the following statements is true about emotions? a. Emotions are learned behaviors.b. Young children are unable to experience more than one emotion at a time.c. Authoritative parents tend to discourage emotional expression in their childrend. Emotional reactions can lead to learning that is essential for survival.1 points QUESTION 27 __________ are sex cells that contain __________ chromosomes each. a. Gametes; 23 b. Gametes; 23 pairs ofc. Zygotes; 46d. Autosomes; 23 pairs of1 points QUESTION 28Language areas in the cerebral cortex a. are found exclusively in the left hemisphereb. are fully are fully lateralized at birth lateralized at birthc. develop as children acquire languaged. are not fully functional until adulthood.1 points QUESTION 29The most consistent asset of resilient children is:a. a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.b. high academic performance in elementary school.c. a disorganized home environment. d. athletic competence1 points QUESTION 30Why is the field of child development considered interdisciplinary?a. Scientific curiosity is the prevailing factor that led to the study of children.b. The beginning of public education led to a demand for knowledge about what to teach children.c. Contributions from researchers and professionals in different fields help solve everyday problems concerning children.d. Research was stimulated by social pressure to better children’s lives.1 points QUESTION 31In the United Statesa. all teenage mothers are guaranteed welfare benefitsb. there is no time limit for a family on welfare.c. welfare recipients must engage in volunteer work while acquiring work skills.d. a state can prevent welfare payments from increasing if recipients have more children1 points QUESTION 32Vygotsky believed that __________ are necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture.a. cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of societyb. active, independent role-playing effortsc. a series of nested environmental structuresd. the environmental influences that occur during a sensitive period1 points QUESTION 33Temper tantrums tend to occur because toddlers a. frequently compete with siblings for desired toysb. are easily overwhelmed and often have a difficult temperament.c. recall that crying as an infant got them immediate adult attention.d. cannot control the intense anger that often arises when an adult rejects their demands.1 points QUESTION 34What period of human development brings the most rapid time of change?a. the prenatal periodb. infancy and toddlerhoodc. early childhoodd. middle childhood1 points QUESTION 35When her newborn brother cried, two-year-old Melly watched her mother’s reactions. On a later occasion when her brother cried, Melly patted him and spoke softly to him. This is an example of a. joint attentionb. self-efficacy.c. social referencing.d. emotional self-regulation.1 points QUESTION 36Infants of depressed mothers a. often turn to their fathers for caretaking needsb. have abnormally low cortisol levels.c. quickly learn to sooth themselvesd. are less attentive to their surroundings.1 points QUESTION 37Which of the following descriptions defines the family in its most common form?a. a group of people, related by blood, who divide responsibilities, such as child rearing, food provision, and protectionb. a commitment between two adults who pledge faithfulness to each otherc. a mother giving birth to her children and providing food and shelter until the age of 18d. an enduring commitment between a man and woman who feed, shelter, and nurture their children until they reach maturity1 points QUESTION 38Three-year-old Giselle says, “I swimmed like a fish, Mommy!” Giselle’s addition of the -ed ending, although incorrect, shows her growing awareness of a. syntax.b. semantics.c. phonology.d. morphology1 points QUESTION 39Professor Chan believes that language is a unique human accomplishment that children acquire naturally due to the structure of the brain.Professor Chan supports the __________ perspective of language development. a. nativistb. behavioristc. interactionistd. sociocultural1 points QUESTION 40According to social learning theory, as children grow oldera. they become more selective in what they imitate.b. operant conditioning is more effective than classical conditioning in influencing behaviorc. they depend more on their parents than on their friends for reinforcementd. they are less likely to act to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst.1 points QUESTION 41The common goal of investigators who study child development is toa. join the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and neuroscienceb. predict academic success during adolescence.c. analyze human behavior and its effects on family relationships.d. describe and identify those factors that influence young people during the first two decades of life.1 points QUESTION 42Marcus was abused by his parents during his preschool years. Now in elementary school and living with a foster family, Marcus’s school counselor believes those early negative events can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The counselor is emphasizing the role of __________ in development.a. nurtureb. naturec. heredityd. stability1 points QUESTION 43The development of __________ memory is linked with the emergence of the __________ selfa. recognition; socialb. working; enduringc. semantic; categoricald. autobiographical; remembered1 points QUESTION 44Each person is made up of trillions of __________ and 23 __________. a. genes; billion cells b. cells; matching pairs of chromosomesc. matching pairs of chromosomes; genesd. cells; chromosomes1 points QUESTION 45According to Freud, the __________ works to reconcile the demands of the __________ and the __________.a. id; ego; superegob. superego; id; egoc. ego; id; superegod. id; conscience; subconscience1 points QUESTION 46Pavlov successfully taught dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by using:a. operant conditioningb. behavior modificationc. classical conditioningd. observational learning.1 points QUESTION 47Cross-cultural research shows that German and Greek caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style common in cultures that value independence, while Nso caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style typical in cultures that value interdependence. a. authoritarian; permissiveb. permissive; uninvolvedc. distal; proximald. proximal; distal1 points QUESTION 48According to Bandura’s social learning theory, children learn primarily througha. Modelingb. Classical Conditioningc. Behavior Modificationd. Operant Conditioning1 points QUESTION 49Compared with other species, human children a. develop faster.b. are more attached to their familyc. are more independent.d. develop slowly.1 points QUESTION 50In the innermost level of the environment, Bronfenbrenner emphasized that:a. reinforcement, punishment, and modeled behaviors are the most important environmental influences.b. the same environmental influences affect children in uniform ways.c. children acquire culturally valued practices from interactions with adults.d. when reciprocal interactions occur often over time, they have an enduring impact on development.

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