Discussion board 3: designer babies

 

The topic of your lesson this week is Biotechnology and Genomics. A designer baby is a human embryo which has been genetically modified, usually following guidelines set by the parent or scientist, to produce desirable traits. This is done using various methods, such as germline engineering or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This technology is the subject of ethical debate, bringing up the concept of genetically modified “superhumans” to interbreed with and eventually replace modern humans.

Creating genetically modified children is no longer a science fiction fantasy, it’s likely a future scenario. Biologist Paul Knoepfler estimates that within fifteen years, scientists could use the gene editing technology CRISPR to make certain ‘upgrades’ to human embryos-from altering appearances to eliminating the risk of auto-immune diseases.

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has the ability to select an embryo based on gender preferences. Since changing a gender is not needed, but desired this could cause much controversy. Additionally, the procedure is able to create a donor offspring or a “savior sibling”, which can assist a pre-existing offspring for medical purposes. PGD can help select for desirable traits by avoiding implanting embryos with genes that have serious diseases or disabilities.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is used to match patients and donors for bone marrow or cord blood transplants. HLA are proteins, or markers, found on most cells of your body. Your immune system uses these markers to recognize which cells belong in your body and which do not. It’s a donor whose HLA are very closely matched to the recipients. The best donors for HLA are siblings. Siblings are more closely matched than non siblings.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) commonly referred to as IVF. IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.

The first designer baby in the United States was Adam Nash was from Colorado in 1990. In 1989 Adam Nash was conceived to save his 6 year old sister Molly, who was dying from an extremely rare genetic disease called Fanconi anemia. This rare bone marrow failure disease is passed down through families as an autosomal recessive disease. It results in decreased production of all types of red blood cells. Molly was unable to find a bone marrow match for a transplant. Through IVF, HLA Typing, and PGD, the Nash family had Adam. He had the stem cells in his umbilical cord that would save her life. Molly is now 23 years old. The Nash family went on to have a third, healthy child through IVF, again selecting an embryo without the Fanconi gene. The book My Sister’s Keeper (2009) was written by Jodi Picoult and loosely based on the Nash family. It is now a movie starring Cameron Diaz and Abigail Breslin.

Britain’s first designer baby was Jodie, born in 2005. Her older brother Joshua had a rare, incurable bone marrow disease called Diamond Blackfin Anemia.

Take it one step further…In 2018 in China, genetics researcher He Jiankui at the Southern University of Science and Technology used a DNA editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9 on human embryos to create twin girls with a modification to reduce the rick of HIV infection. His team performed “gene surgery” on embryos created from their parents’ sperm and eggs to protect the children from the human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS. The father is HIV positive.

For this discussion board:

From the information given in the videos and the reading, answer each question below in numbered paragraphs 

1. In the TEDTalk, Paul Knoepfler talked about two hypothetical kids, Jenna and Maryann. Describe what he said were the differences between a “natural’ kid and a “GM’ kid.
2. Describe what kind of risks/issues, good and bad, can be seen with these “GM” kids?
3. Explain how CRISPR-Cas9 is used to create GM kids.
4. Is it wrong to produce designer babies, tested to ensure the absence of harmful genes, to be tissue donors for sick siblings? Share your thoughts.
5. Read your classmate’s posts and respond to one student whose thoughts about designer babies used to treat sick siblings was different from yours.

It will be necessary for you to find sources to get information on your stories. Remember to always give credit or cite your source information. This should be written in your own words. You show understanding of the topic when you can summarize it without using the same phrases or word choice as the original sites or videos. Changing a few words in a sentence is still plagiarism. The link below is a good tutorial about avoiding plagiarism in your writing.

https://library.tccd.edu/resources/tutorials/plagiarism/index.php

Cite your sources using APA style. The website below has information to help you cite your source(s) correctly.

https://library.purdueglobal.edu/writingcenter/citationguides

Hover over “Citation Guides” to choose the correct type of source.

Below is another resource regarding APA style from the TCC Library.

https://library.tccd.edu/academic_support/citations

Choose reliable sources like those found using the article database from the TCC library (Today’s Science and Science in Context by Gale are great), information from universities, and governmental websites (https://www.choosemyplate.gov

https://www.usda.gov/topics/food-and-nutrition) Wikipedia and personal websites/blogs are not good sources.

Grading criteria (Please see Grading Rubric for more detailed criteria):

10 points – grammar and source information, numbered paragraphs

8 points – described the differences between a ‘natural’ kid and a “GM’ kid.

8 points – described risks/issues for “GM” kids

8 points – explained how CRISPR-Cas9 is used to make “GM” kids

8 points – gave thoughts on designer babies being used to treat sick siblings

8 points – read your classmate’s posts and responded to thoughts different from yours about designer babies used to treat sick siblings

Duepapers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.