Discuss the history of computers.

Explore a brief history of computer technology

· Familiarize student with some basic computer language

· Discuss the forms of Internet communication


History of Computers

· Computer:

· Device used to ascertain an amount or number by calculation or reckoning

· Mechanism through which raw information (data) is processed

· First computer created by Chinese 800 yrs. ago

· ABACUS: wooden frame device with rows of different colored beads

· Used for mathematical computations

· England (mid-19th Century); Charles Babbage

· Designed engine that received instructions from punch cards

· Made calculations form memory bank

· Printed out mathematical solutions

· America (late-19th Century); Herman Hollerith (US government employee)

· Created first device used exclusively for data processing

· Used to tabulate 1890 Census for US

· Later developed his own company-Tabulating Machine Company, predecessor to IBM

· 20th Century Computer Development Progress

· Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC): first modern digital computer

· Capabilities: binary arithmetic, parallel processing, separate memory, regenerative memory, basic computer functionality

· Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC); 1945

· Used to calculate firing and bombing tables for US military (WWII)

· Colossus I (circa-1945): British designed for code-breaking of German military

· Computer mainframe technology designed (1960’s-1970’s)

· Present Day: PC’s (originally contained operating systems: DOS & UNIX) and graphical user interface platforms (Windows and Macintosh)

II.Computer Language

· Binary Language: structure of data which is processed through the computer

· Bit: smallest piece of data-either positive or negative electrical state, 1 or 0

· Byte: Comprised of 8 Bits; each byte represents a letter, number or character

· Eight Bits=One Byte (letter-number-character)

· Example: 01000001(bits)=A (byte)

· Kilobyte: 1,000 characters; One-half page of text

· Gigabyte: 1billion characters; Truck full of paper

· Computer Hardware (Input Devices): also categorized as output or storage devices

· Components that are physical in nature: modems, keyboards,mouse,scanner

· Mediums through which information is introduced into computer

· Computer Software (Analyze): series of instructions performing particular tasks

· Instructs computer components

· What to do and how to interact with user

· Three types: boot sequence-operating system-application software

· Boot Sequence: series of steps before starting to use computer

· Operating System: runs user applications and provides interface to the hardware: Windows, Macintosh

· Application Software: prepackaged instructions allow users to perform various functions: word processing, statistical analysis, play games etc.

· Programs: Establishes sequence of rules through which software operates

· Source Code: Set of instructions written in a program

· Object Code: What is actually executed by the computer

· Hacker Terminology

· Back door: Deliberate hole in software or program to allow unauthorized access

· Cracker: Name given by traditional hackers to individuals who violated secure systems for illegal purposes

· DDoS attack: (Distributed Denial of Service attack ): Use of multiple systems to inundate (flood) a single system, causing the target site to shut down

· Logic bomb: Piece of code inserted into software program that performs a malicious function when programmed conditions are met

· Phishing: Solicitation of information (personal, financial) via e-mail from a

fraudster posing as a legitimate firm for the purpose of stealing identifying data

· Phreaking: Violating secure telephone systems and making illegal calls or transactions from the system

· Trojan Horse: Harmless looking program that hides malicious content to damage targeted computer

III.History of Internet

· History:

· Initial conception grew out of government suspicion and social hysteria around Cold War between US and Russia in 1950’s-1960’s

· Push to develop alternative communication systems that would operate if Nuclear attacks knocked out normal telecommunication systems

· Computer networks linked four Universities over phone lines

· Limited to written correspondence only (April 7, 1969-first document-“start date for Internet”); no interactive sessions

· Network Language:

· TCP/IP: (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

· Suite of protocols that define the Internet

· Method of communication between programs which enables transfer of information

· IMAP: (Internet message Access Protocol)

· Method of accessing electronic mail or bulletin board messages that are kept on a shared server

· Examples: Access from home, work, notebook while traveling

· Routers: Special-purpose software packages that handle the connection between two or more networks

· Cookies: storage platforms for information

· Domain Name System: Group of computers on a common network defined by common IP addresses

· Examples: com (commercial organization), edu (educational institution), gov (government organization), org (non-profit organization), net (Internet access providers)

· Cloud Computing: Delivers computing as a service; system involves a set of services, technologies and virtual resources

· Examples: video sites (YouTube); communication tools (Skype)

· Company software and application updates may be centrally uploaded thus negating maintenance and upkeep of individual computers

· Cyberworld: Three different levels of networked systems: Intranets, Internets, Internet

· Intranets:

· Small local networks connecting computers within one organization

· Controlled by common system administrator

· internets:

· Connect several networks

· Usually located in small geographical area

· Share common protocol (usually TCP/IP)

· The Internet:

· Largest network in the world

· TCI/IP-based network links millions of users globally across more than 45,000 networks


· World Wide Web: An electronic marketplace or arena where electronic storefronts of businesses, civic groups, individuals and government entities display their products or ideologies

· Each web site is characterized by its Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

· Designs range from simple text-only sites to advanced video-audio configuration

· Bulletin Boards: Posting services similar to a community bulletin board in a library, transportation hub, schools, municipal buildings

· Individuals can access software, post personal information, and exchange electronic mail

· Very popular among subversive, terrorist groups, child pornographers (private areas for illegal communications)

· Protected by First Amendment

· Difficult for law Enforcement due to Jurisdictional Issues: access in one county and board is physically located in another jurisdiction

· Internet Relay Chat (Chat Rooms)

· On line discussions in chat rooms

· Allow users to interact with several others at same time (party line)

· Characterized by topic

· Users may choose to observe, participate in group discussions or private

· Topics range from harmless interests like sports, hobbies to profane

· Solicitations for sex very common in “teen rooms”

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