Explore a brief history of computer technology
· Familiarize student with some basic computer language
· Discuss the forms of Internet communication
History of Computers
· Device used to ascertain an amount or number by calculation or reckoning
· Mechanism through which raw information (data) is processed
· First computer created by Chinese 800 yrs. ago
· ABACUS: wooden frame device with rows of different colored beads
· Used for mathematical computations
· England (mid-19th Century); Charles Babbage
· Designed engine that received instructions from punch cards
· Made calculations form memory bank
· Printed out mathematical solutions
· America (late-19th Century); Herman Hollerith (US government employee)
· Created first device used exclusively for data processing
· Used to tabulate 1890 Census for US
· Later developed his own company-Tabulating Machine Company, predecessor to IBM
· 20th Century Computer Development Progress
· Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC): first modern digital computer
· Capabilities: binary arithmetic, parallel processing, separate memory, regenerative memory, basic computer functionality
· Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC); 1945
· Used to calculate firing and bombing tables for US military (WWII)
· Colossus I (circa-1945): British designed for code-breaking of German military
· Computer mainframe technology designed (1960’s-1970’s)
· Present Day: PC’s (originally contained operating systems: DOS & UNIX) and graphical user interface platforms (Windows and Macintosh)
· Binary Language: structure of data which is processed through the computer
· Bit: smallest piece of data-either positive or negative electrical state, 1 or 0
· Byte: Comprised of 8 Bits; each byte represents a letter, number or character
· Eight Bits=One Byte (letter-number-character)
· Example: 01000001(bits)=A (byte)
· Kilobyte: 1,000 characters; One-half page of text
· Gigabyte: 1billion characters; Truck full of paper
· Computer Hardware (Input Devices): also categorized as output or storage devices
· Components that are physical in nature: modems, keyboards,mouse,scanner
· Mediums through which information is introduced into computer
· Computer Software (Analyze): series of instructions performing particular tasks
· Instructs computer components
· What to do and how to interact with user
· Three types: boot sequence-operating system-application software
· Boot Sequence: series of steps before starting to use computer
· Operating System: runs user applications and provides interface to the hardware: Windows, Macintosh
· Application Software: prepackaged instructions allow users to perform various functions: word processing, statistical analysis, play games etc.
· Programs: Establishes sequence of rules through which software operates
· Source Code: Set of instructions written in a program
· Object Code: What is actually executed by the computer
· Hacker Terminology
· Back door: Deliberate hole in software or program to allow unauthorized access
· Cracker: Name given by traditional hackers to individuals who violated secure systems for illegal purposes
· DDoS attack: (Distributed Denial of Service attack ): Use of multiple systems to inundate (flood) a single system, causing the target site to shut down
· Logic bomb: Piece of code inserted into software program that performs a malicious function when programmed conditions are met
· Phishing: Solicitation of information (personal, financial) via e-mail from a
fraudster posing as a legitimate firm for the purpose of stealing identifying data
· Phreaking: Violating secure telephone systems and making illegal calls or transactions from the system
· Trojan Horse: Harmless looking program that hides malicious content to damage targeted computer
III.History of Internet
· Initial conception grew out of government suspicion and social hysteria around Cold War between US and Russia in 1950’s-1960’s
· Push to develop alternative communication systems that would operate if Nuclear attacks knocked out normal telecommunication systems
· Computer networks linked four Universities over phone lines
· Limited to written correspondence only (April 7, 1969-first document-“start date for Internet”); no interactive sessions
· Network Language:
· TCP/IP: (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
· Suite of protocols that define the Internet
· Method of communication between programs which enables transfer of information
· IMAP: (Internet message Access Protocol)
· Method of accessing electronic mail or bulletin board messages that are kept on a shared server
· Examples: Access from home, work, notebook while traveling
· Routers: Special-purpose software packages that handle the connection between two or more networks
· Cookies: storage platforms for information
· Domain Name System: Group of computers on a common network defined by common IP addresses
· Examples: com (commercial organization), edu (educational institution), gov (government organization), org (non-profit organization), net (Internet access providers)
· Cloud Computing: Delivers computing as a service; system involves a set of services, technologies and virtual resources
· Examples: video sites (YouTube); communication tools (Skype)
· Company software and application updates may be centrally uploaded thus negating maintenance and upkeep of individual computers
· Cyberworld: Three different levels of networked systems: Intranets, Internets, Internet
· Small local networks connecting computers within one organization
· Controlled by common system administrator
· Connect several networks
· Usually located in small geographical area
· Share common protocol (usually TCP/IP)
· The Internet:
· Largest network in the world
· TCI/IP-based network links millions of users globally across more than 45,000 networks
IV. INTERNET CATEGORIES
· World Wide Web: An electronic marketplace or arena where electronic storefronts of businesses, civic groups, individuals and government entities display their products or ideologies
· Each web site is characterized by its Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
· Designs range from simple text-only sites to advanced video-audio configuration
· Bulletin Boards: Posting services similar to a community bulletin board in a library, transportation hub, schools, municipal buildings
· Individuals can access software, post personal information, and exchange electronic mail
· Very popular among subversive, terrorist groups, child pornographers (private areas for illegal communications)
· Protected by First Amendment
· Difficult for law Enforcement due to Jurisdictional Issues: access in one county and board is physically located in another jurisdiction
· Internet Relay Chat (Chat Rooms)
· On line discussions in chat rooms
· Allow users to interact with several others at same time (party line)
· Characterized by topic
· Users may choose to observe, participate in group discussions or private
· Topics range from harmless interests like sports, hobbies to profane
· Solicitations for sex very common in “teen rooms”
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