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Directions: Answer all parts. Be sure to write complete sentences, double space, set one-inch margins, and use Times Roman 12-point font.  Once again, do not plagiarize, the penalty for which is an “F.” As with the first exam, you must identify sources that you have used, either in parentheses, footnotes, or endnotes.

Also, you should consult the Adobe we have added to Moodle (weeks 9-12) for this exam. They begin under Week 9. Ignore the attendance questions.

Part 1:  In his essay “What is Enlightenment?” (1784), Immanuel Kant explains enlightenment as “man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage.” What did he mean? [See “Kant and Self-Incurred Tutelage,” on the course’s Moodle page] What views did he and the other philosophes advance on three of the following topics: politics, economics, law and justice, sex and marriage, the press, and education? Where possible, be sure to mention relevant books by individual philosophes on the subjects you choose. Why were the philosophes so critical of organized religion? What was Deism and why did so many philosophes embrace it? Briefly explain three important effects of the Enlightenment.  

For this part, aim for two to two-and-a half pages. 

Part 2: Answer two of the following sets of questions. Be sure to write complete sentences, double space, set one-inch margins, and use Times Roman 12-point font.  Aim for one-and-a half to two pages for each of your answers.  You will note that some of the questions ask you to form opinions on the subject. Do not be intimidated by that. 

1.      Identify and explain two important effects of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.  Should the French Revolution be viewed as a success or a failure?  Was Napoleon’s reign largely beneficial or chiefly disastrous for France?  

2.      Define conservatism, liberalism, and radicalism in the context of the 19th century. Which of these political outlooks was the most successful, and which one seems most attractive to you? Explain your answer. How have they changed over time (that is, up to the present)?   

3.      Why did the revolutions of 1848 fail to have the outcomes that those who rebelled wanted to achieve? Did the revolutions have any positive outcomes?

4.      Why were the 19th-century unifications of Italy and Germany important events? Evaluate Otto von Bismarck as a political leader/statesman. What were the consequences of the methods by which he achieved German unification? 

5.      Why was Great Britain the first country to industrialize, and why did it have about a fifty-year head start on other countries in creating an industrial capitalist economy? Explain your view of the beneficial and detrimental aspects of living in a modern industrial society.  

Bonus: What, in your opinion, does it mean to be enlightened today?  3 points

Tip: Create outlines for your essays on paper or in Word. 

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