From your course textbook Case Workbook to Accompany Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications, read the case study provided in the following chapter:
In a 2- to 3-page Microsoft Word document, create a work sheet by answering the Questions for Research and Discussion provided for the case study
Simon and Althea Johnson met in high school. They became friends when they discovered, in a history class, that their families came from the same small town in South Carolina and that both were the grandchildren of slaves. Despite the fact that Simon and Althea were very healthy, Althea had difficulty conceiving and had three pregnancy losses before conceiving and giving birth to Edwin, their only child. Simon and Althea ran a restaurant in South Carolina for many years, and they lived into their nineties. Edwin married Yvonne, whose family is also descended from African slaves. They had daughters Naomi and Kizzy, who are very close, as are their daughters Suzanne and Tawanda. Naomi married Dan Cicero, whose family is from Italy, and Kizzy married Percival, a dark-skinned man from London. Fortunately, Naomi and Kizzy had no problems with fertility. Suzanne has three siblings and Tawanda has two.
Dan and Naomi met at Duke University. When sickle cell disease carrier testing was offered on campus, neither was interested. They were economics majors and had no background in biology, but remembered something from high school about only those of African ancestry inheriting or carrying the disease, and discrimination. No one in Naomi’s family had had the disease, and Dan wasn’t African American. They thought no more of sickle cell disease—until their first child, Robin, was born.
Shortly after Robin’s birth, the hospital called with startling news: the newborn had sickle cell disease. One of several dozen tests performed on blood taken from Robin’s heel had revealed the telltale abnormal hemoglobin S of sickle cell disease, although most of the hemoglobin was still of the fetal type. Dan and Naomi were shocked and confused. How could this have happened, given their family history?
Robin was started on prophylactic antibiotics to lower the risk of infection. She only had one “crisis.” It happened just after her first birthday, requiring hospitalization and transfusions to restore her circulation. In a sickle cell crisis, the misshapen red blood cells block blood flow, and the body part normally served by that blood vessel is cut off from the circulation, causing severe pain. Robin’s crisis affected her left arm.
When Naomi became pregnant again two years later, she had amniocentesis, which provided fetal cells to test for the point mutation in the beta globin gene that causes sickle cell disease when homozygous. The fetus was found to be a heterozygote, and Jamal was healthy at birth. Naomi and Dan thought at first that the baby might be able to provide bone marrow for Robin, a fairly new approach that had cured a few children of sickle cell disease. However, Jamal could not provide marrow because some of his cells would be sickled, too. Dan and Naomi had two other children, one of whom was able to help Robin. The story continues in Chapter 21.
6768Jamal became fascinated with his family’s illness. After college, he joined the Peace Corps and was assigned to the Sudan. There, he met another volunteer, Keyonna, who was also a carrier for sickle cell disease. Their genotype was actually an advantage in their environment. Sickle cell disease carriers have a lower risk of contracting malaria because the parasites cannot survive in sickled cells, and a small percentage of their red blood cells are sickled. They have enough such cells to keep them safe from malaria, but not enough to cause sickle cell disease, unless they are at high altitudes where the body’s demand for oxygen intensifies. This protection explains why sickle cell disease is more common among certain population groups. Over the generations in Africa, the proportion of the population that carries the sickle cell disease mutation has increased, as it did in descendants who moved to other parts of the world where malaria existed. This protection against an illness that arises from heterozygosity for an inherited disease is termed balanced polymorphism.
Submitted the document for the case study in “Changing Allele Frequencies” and it contained the following:
Why Work with Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
24/7 Customer Support
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission Essays & Business Writing Help
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.