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b’nWeek 3: Epidemiology, the Basis for Public HealthThe study of epidemiology includes the examination of infectious disease, mental health and health-related events such as accidents or violence, and occupational and environmental exposure and their effects, as well as the examination of positive health states (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2016). Additionally, the study of epidemiology includes research into the morbidity and mortality of chronic illnesses that are found in the United States and across the globe. Infectious diseases like polio, TB, measles, and malaria have been almost eliminated in the United States; however, these diseases continue in other parts of the world for a variety of reasons. Highly contagious infectious diseases can and do lead to death despite the fact that many are preventable. The United States has used childhood vaccinations to prevent and eradicate illnesses such as smallpox and polio. In order to reduce the incidence of malaria in the United States, DDTxe2x80x94a known carcinogen in humans that is also toxic to birdsxe2x80x94and other pesticides were used in the past and have since been replaced with nontoxic insecticides and larvicides to reduce the numbers of mosquitoes.Unfortunately, developing countries often do not have the resources to engage in the same sorts of prevention programs and may have to resort to unsafe or toxic means to control vectors. They may not have the financial resources or health care personnel available to engage in mass vaccination campaigns. In addition, countries that experience frequent wars, acts of terrorism, and political instability face additional challenges to the provision of health care to their populations, especially when faced with an outbreak of an infectious disease.This week, you will focus on the epidemiology of infectious and communicable disease and how nursing practices change in response to threats and outbreaks.Learning ObjectivesStudents will:Analyze public health settings in relation to prevention of disease transmissionAnalyze public health nursexe2x80x99s role in outbreak investigationsApply the epidemiological triangle for an infectious or communicable disease outbreakAnalyze leadership roles of nurses in bringing an outbreak under controlEvaluate nursing strategies for health promotion in mitigating outbreaksPhoto Credit: IAN HOOTON/Science Photo Library/Getty ImagesLearning ResourcesRequired ReadingsHoltz, C. (2013). Global health care: Issues and policies (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Chapter 7, xe2x80x9cInfectious Diseases from a Global Perspectivexe2x80x9d (pp. 159xe2x80x93182)Chapter 13, xe2x80x9cGlobal Perspectives on Violence, Injury, and Occupational Healthxe2x80x9d (pp. 325xe2x80x93354)Chapter 15, xe2x80x9cGlobal Perspectives on Mental Healthxe2x80x9d (pp. 385xe2x80x93408)Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Chapter 13, xe2x80x9cInfectious Disease Prevention and Controlxe2x80x9d (pp. 286xe2x80x93318)Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 9th Ed. by Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Health Science Books. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Science Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Chapter 12, xe2x80x9cEpidemiologyxe2x80x9d (pp. 256xe2x80x93285)Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 9th Ed. by Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Health Science Books. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Science Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Chapter 24, xe2x80x9cPublic Health Surveillance and Outbreak Investigationxe2x80x9d (pp. 529xe2x80x93544)Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 9th Ed. by Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Health Science Books. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Science Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.HealthyPeople.gov. (2016). Global health. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/global-healthRequired MediaLaureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2016).xc2xa0The role of the nurse in public and global health with Dr. Letitia Robinson.xc2xa0Baltimore, MD: Author.Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.Accessible player–Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload TranscriptTED. (2014). What makes us get sick? Look upstream. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/rishi_manchanda_what_makes_us_get_sick_look_upstreamNote: The approximate length of this media piece is 18 minutes.Dr. Rishi Manchanda suggests physicians and health care workers look upstream to discover the root causes of why patients are sick.Writing Resources and Program Success ToolsDocument: AWE Checklist (4000) (Word document)This checklist will help you self-assess your writing to see if it meets academic writing standards for this course.Walden University. (n.d.). Walden templates: General templates: APA course paper template with advice (6th ed.). Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ld.php?content_id=7980455Dr. Mary Bassett (Health Commissioner of New York City) discusses why physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals should not keep silent about health care disparities, based on her insights from her work in Zimbabwe.Discussion: Preventing Disease in Communities: The Role of Public Health, the Silent SentinelOur xe2x80x9cworldxe2x80x9d starts with our own community, county, and state, then moves out in concentric rings from that point to include our country and eventually the world. Disease is transmitted from person to person through direct contact, or from a source such as a vector or contaminated water through a variety of means, such as flood waters or even terrorist actions. Individuals with limited or no knowledge of safe sex methods may have unprotected sexual relations and knowingly or unknowingly transmit disease to their partners, then to their partnersxe2x80x99 partners, and on and on. Often it is the role of the public health nurse to investigate a disease outbreak, contain it, and then educate others so that the same situation doesnxe2x80x99t happen again.In this Discussion, you will visit a site and interview people who work there about risks for disease transmission, then report on your findings.To prepare, select which site you will visit from the following options:High school nursexe2x80x99s officeWater treatment plantPublic health departmentPediatricianxe2x80x99s officeCreate a brief description of your setting, providing some context; for example, how many patients are seen, size or capacity of the facility as applicable, and/or the location of the office or organization.While you are at the site, check to see if you are allowed to take pictures. If so, include your photos in your Discussion post to give your colleagues a better understanding of the environment you are describing.Then, during your site visit, pose the questions listed in the following chart:Now, look at the site you visited through the eyes of the public health nurse (PHN). Imagine you are the PHN and have been asked to investigate an outbreak at this facility.What questions would you ask?What suggestions could you make to avoid a disease outbreak at the facility?What would your role as a change agent be for any deficiencies you find in your on-site inspection?By Day 3Post your brief description and pictures of the site you visited. Share the answers you were given to the questions you posed. Then, respond to the above prompts through the eyes of a PHN asked to investigate an outbreak at this facility.Support your response with references from the professional nursing literature.Note Initial Post: A 3-paragraph (at least 250xe2x80x93350 words) response. Be sure to use evidence from the readings and include in-text citations. Utilize essay-level writing practice and skills, including the use of transitional material and organizational frames. Avoid quotes; paraphrase to incorporate evidence into your own writing. A reference list is required. Use the most current evidence (usually xe2x89xa4 5 years old).Read two or more of your colleaguesxe2x80x99 postings from the Discussion question (support with evidence if indicated). ‘

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