2 Paragraphs Response Only 2 Response For There Two Article One Paragraph Fro Each Student

Question Description

minimum of 2 peer-reviewed references and citations in APA format. In addition, at least two responses to classmates are required. Responses to classmates include providing additional information about the topic and can also include asking probing questions.

2 response for there two article, one paragraph fro each student.


Psychological and emotional conditions

Mental health can be a very severe issue that may require medical attention. In Lebanon 17% of people suffer from mental health issues and at least 90% cannot be treated due to lack of access to medical care (Pfister, n.d.). Most of the financial budget is not spent on mental health. The amount spent is 5% less than most European countries but is higher than the global average which is 3.2% (Pfister, n.d.). They are in a decent spot having a good number of psychiatrists and clinical phycologists, however, not enough time and money is put into the mental health aspect of life.

Cultural issues and stressors

One major cultural stressor was the civil war that occurred from 1975 to 1990 that caused several detrimental issues to the country along with the people in it (Catriona, n.d.). Israel also took over many areas for eight years causing migration. This migration caused lifestyle changes negatively impacting the health of the people who lived there. While the war mostly affected those living there in the years the war occurred it still impacts the cultures health and their views on politics, social standards, and their economy.

Stigma in Lebanon

A recent finding of a stigma around mental health has been most common with “children, women, refugees and members of the LGBTQ community. They emphasized the continuing challenge of a lack of awareness in the community and ongoing stigma, even among health care providers” (Ajrouch, n.d.). Along with these groups it is known that men do not bring to attention if they have a mental illness either. The International Red cross committee explains that they do hold awareness events however, because of the stigma throughout communities’ people are afraid to open up. Along with this especially in middle eastern countries some of these ways of living are not acceptable by parents or other family members. This feeling of not being able to open up is not healthy because it only enhances signs and symptoms of a mental illness and is not a healthy life to live if the individual is not living it how they want.


Ajrouch, K. J., Abdulrahim, S., & Antonucci, T. C. (n.d.). Stress, SocialRelations, and Psychological Health OvertheLife Course: A Focus on Lebanon. Retrieved from http://csa.org.lb/cms/assets/2013/ajrouch_abdulrah…

(Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

Catriona. (n.d.). Addressing mental health needs in Lebanon. Retrieved from https://odihpn.org/magazine/addressing-mental-heal…

(Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

Pfister, M. (n.d.). Stigma around mental health lingers in Lebanon. Retrieved from http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2018…


Psychological and emotional conditions

People suffering from HIV/AIDs in Nigeria experience psychological and emotional conditions because of their health status. One emotional condition suffered by people living with HIV/AIDs in Nigeria is discrimination. HIV/AIDs in Nigeria is a dreaded disease and the lack of awareness among the public about its transmission makes them avoid physical contact with people suffering from the disease (Awofala & Ogundele, 2018). Therefore, people living with disease are isolated from the communities they live in and they feel unwanted. This can lead to feelings of low self-esteem, depression and suicidal thoughts.

Additionally, contracting HIV/AIDs in Nigeria is seen as an act of immoral behavior hence those suffering from the disease opt to suffer in silence while many opt not to get tested. Some family members of those suffering from HIV/AIDs also cut ties with victims as they feel ashamed of the patients’ conditions. A person suffering from HIV/AIDs in Nigeria brings shame to his/her family and can be ex-communicated (Awofala & Ogundele, 2018). Such discrimination can lead to feelings of unworthiness and depression among the patients.

Furthermore, people suffering from HIV/AIDs face mockery in the society. When someone suffering from the disease comes out, he/she is subjected to ridicule and mockery which can negatively affect their mental health.

Cultural issues and stressors

Due to lack of awareness of HIV/AIDs in Nigeria, sections of the public attribute HIV/AIDs to witchcraft and spiritual issues. People suffering from HIV/AIDs are seen to be bewitched or punished spiritually (Ogbonna, Simon, & Emelumadu, 2016). In rural areas where witchcraft and traditional religion are dominant, people from HIV/AIDs can be excommunicated and regarded to be immoral.

Additionally, Nigeria culture is highly collective and members of the community are required to be moral guided by cultural values and beliefs. Therefore, people suffering from HIV/AIDs are seen as immoral and against the cultural values of the community. This hinders people suffering from the disease revealing their status and getting medical help and also acts a barrier for people to get tested.

Some communities in Nigeria allow polygamy and some people have multiple sexual partners which contribute to new HIV/AIDs infection. Although illegal, homosexuality in Nigeria also contributes to new HIV/AIDs infections. Other cultural practices such as child marriage, female genital mutilation, and levirate marriage also contribute to the increased HIV/AIDs infections especially among women (Stephen et al., 2015).


People living with HIV/AIDs in Nigeria experience stigma in the society. They are seen as outcasts and immoral people which lead to discrimination in the society. The discrimination ranges from schools, hospitals, and employment. In schools, children who suffer from the disease are discriminated by their teachers and fellow students which has negative psychological effects (Odimegwu, Akinyemi, & Alabi, 2017). Additionally, people living with HIV/AIDs are in some instances discriminated in the access of medical treatment which employers can decide not to employ a person if he/she is HIV positive. Access to medical treatment is difficult for people suffering from HIV/AIDs due to discrimination and they are in some instances denied antiretroviral drugs (Odimegwu, Akinyemi, & Alabi, 2017). Due to the stigma associated with HIV/AIDs many people fear to know their status and others opt to suffer in silence rather than seeking support.


Odimegwu, C.O., Akinyemi, J.O., & Alabi, O.O. (2017). HIV-Stigma in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies, Policies, and Programmes. AIDs Research and Treatment, 2017: 5812650. doi: 10.1155/2017/5812650

(Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

Stephen, S. et al. (2015). Cultural Practices and Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Nigerian Women. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(18): 12-18.

Ogbonna, B.O., Simon, U.O., & Emelumadu, O.F. (2016). Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing HIV/AIDS Prevalence in Nigeria; A Review. Elixir Bio Sciences, 92(2016).

Awofala, A.A., & Ogundele, O.E. (2018). HIV epidemiology in Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 25(4): 697-203.

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