1.Figure 1 is an NCDC graph reporting the U.S. Tornado Averages by Month 1991-2010. It shows that from 1991 to
2010, the most and fewest tornadoes, respectively, occurred in [(May, June)(December, February)(May, December)(June, February)].
[ ]May, June
[ ]December, February
[ ]May, December
[ ]June, February
2.The same Figure shows that the seasons with the most and fewest tornadoes, respectively, occurred in [(spring, winter)(spring, fall)(summer, winter)(fall, winter)].
[ ]spring, winter
[ ]spring, fall
[ ]summer, winter
[ ]fall, winter
3.Subsequent to the publication of Figure 2, the latest “final” count for 2013 was altered to 908 tornadoes. For the majority of states, their numbers of 2013 occurences were [(less than)(equal to)(more than)] their 25-year averages.
[ ]less than
[ ]equal to
[ ]more than
4.Based on 2013 cases, the “Tornado Alley” region of frequent experiences is located generally along and a state or two to either side of the [(Rocky Mountains)(East Coast)(mid and lower Mississippi River Valley)(West Coast)]. [ ]Rocky Mountains
[ ]East Coast
[ ]mid and lower Mississippi River Valley
[ ]West Coast
5.As noted in the table, 2013 had [(1)(2)(3)(4)] occurrence(s) of the most devastating tornado, an EF–5 tornado.
6.The “lumpy” appearance in the middle of the anvil cloud tops as seen in Figure 3 results from intense convection pushing upward beyond the more flat surroundings. The flat tops typically occur from the thunderstorms reaching the stratosphere, a stable layer. The higher convection in the central lumps is made prominent by shadows produced from low-angle, late-afternoon sunlight from the west. These lumps [(are)(are not)] aptly named “over-shooting tops”, a satellite signature of severe thunderstorms.
[ ]are not
7.From the elapsed time on the ground and the length of the damage path, the speed of advance of the tornado was approximately [(10)(20)(40)(60)] mph.
8.According to the Figure 4 map shading, the most intense tornado damage classification category (rating) of the Moore tornado was EF– [(0)(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)].
9.According to the EF scale, maximum wind speeds in the tornado were in the range of [(65 – 85)(86 – 109)(110 – 137)(138 – 167)(168 – 199)(greater than 200)] mph.
[ ]65 – 85
[ ]86 – 109
[ ]110 – 137
[ ]138 – 167
[ ]168 – 199
[ ]greater than 200
10.The track map developed from the damage occurrences indicates that the tornado moved generally toward the [(southwest)(northwest)(northeast)(southeast)]. This direction was generally aligned with the direction of mid-tropospheric winds at that time.
11.The left reflectivity view shows the intense precipitation in reds associated with the supercell thunderstorm. The ball of purple pixels near the center of the image just southwest of Moore is the most intense reflectivity, resulting from large debris in the air. The red curl-shaped area ending with this ball denotes the “hook echo”. Such an echo [(would)(would not)] alert a meteorologist to the likelihood of tornadic activity at or near that location.
[ ]would not
12.The radial velocity view on the right in Figure 5 displays the tornadic vortex signature (TVS) appearing near the the center of the view. Note the pattern of bright red and green colors generally separated by an imaginary line extending westward from the radar site, with red to the north and green to the south. Investigation 7B stated that red denotes Doppler velocities away from the radar site and green being toward. Imagine a short arrow drawn on the image away from the radar site across the broad, bright red patch near the center of the view. Also imagine a short arrow toward the radar site across the patch of bright green pixels. Your pair of arrows represents the radial velocities away from and toward the radar’s location. Recalling Investigation 7B, your pattern of arrows suggests a [(clockwise)(counterclockwise)] mesoscale circulation as seen from above.
13.At map time, bright red and orange shadings depicting radar echoes in southern Mississippi indicated that thunderstorms and intense rainfall [(were)(were not)] occurring in that region.
[ ]were not
14.At New Orleans, south of the squall line, the reported dewpoint was 72 °F with winds generally from the south at about 15 kt. These conditions suggest that low-level moisture [(was)(was not)]
[ ]was not
15.Also, the advancing squall line consisted of thunderstorms which had inflow and updrafts of air consistent with properties such as reported in New Orleans. This northward moving, humid air [(would)(would not)] have acted as a lifting mechanism. The moisture and updrafts were both ingredients for thunderstorm development. The severe types of thunderstorms that accompany squall lines further suggest that instability was also present. These well-developed conditions can lead to tornadoes.
[ ]would not
16.From the elapsed time on the ground and the length of the damage path, the speed of advance of the tornado was approximately [(14)(21)(37)(49)] mph. This speed was greater than the Moore, OK tornado (above) and may be more typical of the majority of strong tornadoes.
17.According to the map coding, the most intense tornado damage classification category (rating) of the Winston County/Louisville tornado was EF–4. The maximum wind speeds in the tornado were estimated to be 185 mph. These speeds and therefore the damage noted to structures was [(less than)(equal to)(greater than)] that in Moore.
[ ]less than
[ ]equal to
[ ]greater than
18.According to the track map, the tornado moved generally toward the [(southwest)(northwest)(northeast)(southeast)]. This direction was generally aligned with the direction of mid-tropospheric winds at that time. This was also similar to the direction of the Moore tornado, a typical pattern of U.S. tornadoes.
19.The left reflectivity view shows the intense precipitation in reds associated with the supercell thunderstorm. The dark red pixels in the curved arc in the center generally from Louisville around to Noxapater identify the most intense reflectivities, often resulting from large raindrops, hail or debris in the air. This red curl area denotes the “hook echo”. This reflectivity pattern is [(similar to)(inconsistent with)] the reflectivity seen in the Figure 5 reflectivity display of the Moore tornado.
[ ]similar to
[ ]inconsistent with
20.The radial velocity view on the right in Figure 9 displays the tornadic vortex signature (TVS) of bright pink and blue colors immediately adjacent to each other left of center in the view (northwest of Noxapater). Investigation 7B noted that red corresponds to Doppler velocities away from the radar site and green or blue are toward. Imagine a short arrow away from the radar site (located off the southwest corner of the map) across the bright pink patch of the pixels. Also imagine a short arrow toward the radar site across the adjacent bright blue pixels. Your pair of arrows located northwest of Noxapater represents the radial velocities away from and toward the radar’s location of the several mile wide mesocyclone. The arrow pattern suggests a counterclockwise circulation as seen from above that [(is)(is not)] consistent with the Moore tornado.
[ ]is not
1.Figure 1 is an NCDC graph reporting the U.S. Tornado Averages by Month 1991-2010. It showsthat from 1991 to 2010, the most and fewest tornadoes, respectively, occurred in [(May,June)(December,…
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